Gupta’s Administrative System

The King

  • Kings assumed titles such as maharajadhiraja, samrat, chakravarthi, parama – bhattaraka and parameshvara.
  • They were also connected with gods through epithets such as parama-daivata (the foremost worshiper of the gods) and parama – bhagavata (the foremost worshiper of Vasudeva Krishna).
  • Samudragupta is compared to Purusha (Supreme Being) in the Allahabad inscription.
  • The divine theory of kingship was practiced by Gupta rulers.
  • The concept that the king is the representative of God on earth and so he is answerable only to God and not to anyone

Ministers and other officials

  • The term “Kumaramatya” occurs in six Vaishali seals.
  • The “Kumaramatya” seems to have been preeminent among amatyas and equivalent in status to princes of royal blood.
  • Harisena, composer of the Allahabad prashasti (inscriptions of praise), was a kumaramatya, sandhivigrahika and maha dandanayaka.
  • He was the son of Dhruvabhuti, a Mahadanadanayaka.

Council of Ministers

  • The various high-ranking functionaries included the sandhivigrahika or mahasandhivigrahika
  • Minister for peace and war.
  • High-ranking officials were called dandanayakas, and maha dandanayaka were high-ranking judicial or military officers.

Division of the Empire

  • The Gupta Empire was divided into provinces know as ‘deshas’ or ‘bhuktis’.
  • The uparika was directly appointed by the king.
  • He, in turn, appointed the head of the district administration and the district board.
  • Uparika carried on the administration “with the enjoyment of the rule consisting of elephants, horses and soldiers”, indicating his control over the military machinery as well.
  • Lokpala here seems to refer to a provincial
  • The provinces of the Gupta Empire were divided into districts which were controlled by officers known as
  • Which was known as Visayas.
  • The system of espionage included spies known as “dutakas”.

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